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Science of Behavioral Safety

The major reason Behavior Based Safety is so effective is its scientific base. References and links to the science from a wide range of researchers are below.  

Jan 2011: Unfortunately, the links to access the scientific papers published / hosted by 'Sciencedirect" (Accident Analysis and Prevention, Applied Ergonomics, Journal of Occupational Accidents, Jnl of Safety Research, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Safety Science) keep changing. We keep fixing the links, they keep changing them! We do our best to keep these up-to-date', but you may find the links do not work. We apologize, but it is out of our control.

We did consider putting the original articles 'online' in pdf format, but this would breach copyright laws, so decided against it. Should the original authors wish to give us permission, we would be happy to post a direct link to a pdf version of the article on their server, or on ours.

Scientific References

Alavosius, M.P., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B.(1985). An on-the-job method to evaluate patient lifting techniques. Applied Ergonomics, 16(4), pp 307-311. 

Alavosius M.P., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1986). The effects of performance feedback on the safety of client lifting and transfer. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, pp 261-267.

Alavosius, M.P., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1990). Acquisition and maintenance of health care routines as a function of feedback density. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, pp 151-162.

Al-Hemoud, A.M. & Al-Asfoor, M.M. (2006). A behavior based safety approach at a Kuwait research institution. Journal of Safety Research, 37(2), pp 201-206.

Alvero, A.M., Rost, K. & Austin, J. (2008). The safety observer effect: The effects of conducting safety observations. Journal of Safety Research, 39(4), pp 365-373.

Anderson, M. (2005). Behavioural Safety and Major Accident Hazards: Magic Bullet or Shot in the Dark? Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 83 (2), pp 109-116.

Austin, J., Kessler, M.L., Riccobono, J. E., & Bailey, J. S. (1996). Using feedback and reinforcement to improve the performance and safety of a roofing crew. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 16 (2), pp 49-75.

Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some still.current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, pp 313-327.

Boyce, T.E. & Geller, E.S. (2001). Applied Behavior Analysis and Occupational Safety: The Challenge of Response Maintenance. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(1), pp 31 - 60.

Cameron I & Roy Duff, R. (2007). A critical review of safety initiatives using goal setting and feedback. Construction Management and Economics, 25(5), pp 495 - 508.

Chhokar, J. S., & Wallin, J. A. (1984). A field study of the effect of feedback frequency on performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, pp 524-530.

Chhokar, J. S., & Wallin, J. A. (1984). Improving safety through applied behavior analysis. Journal of Safety Research, 15, pp 141-151.

Cohen, H. H. & Jensen, R. C. (1984). Measuring the effectiveness of an industrial lift truck safety training program. Journal of Safety Research, 15(3), pp 125-135.

Cooper, M.D. (2006a). The impact of management’s commitment on employee behavior: A field study. ASSE- MEC 7th Professional Development Conference & Exhibition, Kingdom of Bahrain, March 18-22, 2006.

Cooper, M.D. (2006b). ‘Exploratory analysis of the effects of managerial support and feedback consequences on behavioral safety maintenance’, Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 26(3), pp 1-41.

Cooper, M.D. (2009). Behavioral Safety: A review of process design factors’. Professional Safety, 54 (2), pp 36-45.

Cooper, M.D. (2010). The Return on Investment of Behavior-Based Safety Processes. Italian Journal of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics: Suppl.A Psychology, 32(1), pp A15-A17.

Cooper, M.D. (2010). Safety Leadership In Construction: A Case Study. Italian Journal of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics: Suppl.A Psychology, 32(1), pp A18-A23.

Cooper, M. D., & Phillips, R.A (1997). Killing two birds with one stone: achieving quality via total safety management. Facilities, 15(1), pp 34-41.

Cooper, M. D., & Phillips, R.A (2004). Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. Journal of Safety Research, 35(5),pp 497-512.

Cooper, M.D., Farmery, K., Johnson, et al. (2005). Changing Personnel behavior to promote quality care practices in an intensive care unit. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 1(4), pp 321-332.

Cooper, M.D., Phillips, R.A., Robertson, I.T. & Duff, A.R. (1993). Improving safety on construction sites by the utilisation of psychologically based techniques: Alternative approaches to the measurement of safety behaviour. European Review of Applied Psychology, 43, pp 33-41.

Cooper, M. D., Phillips, R. A, Sutherland, V. J., & Makin, P. J. (1994). Reducing accidents using goal setting and feedback: A field study. Journal of Organizational & Occupational Psychology, 67, pp 219-240.

Cooper, S. E., & Newbold, R. C. (1994). Combining external and internal behavioral system consultation to enhance plant safety. Consulting Psychology Journal, pp 32-41.

Cox, S., Jones,B., & Rycraft, H. (2004). Behavioural approaches to safety management within UK reactor plants. Safety Science, 42(9), pp 825-839.

Cox,S & Jones, B. (2006). Behavioural Safety and Accident Prevention: Short-Term ‘Fad’ or Sustainable ‘Fix’? Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 84(3), pp 164-170.

DeJoy, D.M. (2005) Behavior change versus culture change: Divergent approaches to managing workplace safety. Safety Science, 43(2), pp 105-129.

DePasquale J.P & Geller, E.S. (1999). Critical Success Factors for Behavior-Based Safety: A Study of Twenty Industry-wide Applications. Journal of Safety Research, 30 (4), pp 237-249.

Duff, A.R., Robertson, I.T.,Cooper, M.D. & Phillips, R.A.(1993). Improving safety on construction sites by changing personnel behaviour. Phase 1. HMSO; London.

Duff, A.R., Robertson, I.T., Phillips, R.A. & Cooper, M.D. (1994). Improving Safety by the Modification of Behaviour. Construction Management and Economics, 12, pp 67-78.

Fellner, D. J., & Sulzer.Azaroff, B. (1984). Increasing industrial safety practices and conditions through posted feedback. Journal of Safety Research, 15, pp 17-21.

Fellner, D. J., & Sulzer.Azaroff, B. (1984). A behavioral analysis of goal setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 6, pp 33-51.

Fellner, D. J., & Sulzer.Azaroff, B. (1985) Occupational safety: Assessing the impact of adding assigned or participative goal setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 7, pp 3-24.

Fitch, H. G., Herman, J., & Hopkins, B. L. (1976). Safe and unsafe behavior and its modification Journal of Occupational Medicine, 18, pp 618-622.

Fox, C. J., & Sulzer.Azaroff, B. (1987). Increasing the completion of accident reports. Journal of Safety Research, 18, pp 65-71.

Fox, C. J., & Sulzer.Azaroff, B. (1989). The effectiveness of two different sources of feedback on staff teaching of fire evacuation skills. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 10, pp 19-35.

Fox, D. K., Hopkins. B. L., & Anger, W. K. (1987). The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, pp 215-224.

Geller, E. S., & Hahn, H. A. (1984). Promoting safety belt use at industrial sites: An effective program for blue collar employees. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 15, pp 553-564.

Geller, E. S., & Lehman, G. R. (1991). The buckle.up card: A versatile intervention for large.scale behavior change Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, pp 91-94.

Geller, E. S., Davis, L. & Spicer, K. (1983). Industry based incentives for promoting seat.belt use: Differential impact on white.collar vs. blue.collar employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 5, pp 17-29.

Geller, E. S. (1983). Rewarding safety belt usage at an industrial setting: test of treatment generality and response maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, pp 189-202.

Geller, E. S. (1984). A delayed reward strategy for large-scale motivation of safety belt use: A test of long-term impact. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 16 pp 457-463.

Grindle, A.C., Dickinson, A.M. & Boettcher, W. (2000). Behavioral Safety Research in Manufacturing Settings:A Review of the Literature. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 20(1), pp 29 - 68.

Hantula,D.A., Rajala, A.K., Brecher-Kellerman, E.G.& DeNicolis-Bragger, J.L.(2001). The Value of Workplace Safety: A Time-Based Utility Analysis Model. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(2), pp 79 - 98.

Harper, A.C, Gunson, C., & Robinson, L. et al. (1996) Curtin industrial safety trial: Methods and safe practice and housekeeping outcomes. Safety Science, 24 (3), pp 159-172.

Harper, A.C., Cordery, J.L., de Klerk,N.H., et al. (1996) Curtin industrial safety trial: Managerial behavior and program effectiveness. Safety Science, 24 (3), pp 173-179.

Haynes, R., Pine, R.C., & Fitch, H.G (1982). Reducing accident rates with organisational behaviour modification. Academy of management Journal, 25(2), pp 407-416.

Hickman, J.S. & Geller, E.S. (2003). A safety self-management intervention for mining operations. Journal of Safety Research, 34(3), pp 299-308

Hermann J.A, Ibarra, G.V. & Hopkins, B.L (2010). A Safety Program That Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 30(1), pp 6-25.

Hopkins, B. L., Conard, R. J., Dangel, R. G., Fitch, H. G., Smith, M. J., & Anger, W. K. (1986). Behavioral technology for reducing occupational exposures to styrene. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, pp 3-11.

Hopkins, A. (2006). What are we to make of safe behaviour programs? Safety Science, 44 (7), pp 583-597.

Ilgen D. R., Fisher, C. D., & Taylor, M. S (1979) Consequences of individual feedback on behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64 (4), pp 349-371.

Jacobs, H. H. (1970). Towards more effective safety measurement systems. Journal of Safety Research, 2, pp 160-175.

Johnston, J. J., Cattledge, G.G.H., & Collins, J.W. (1994). The efficacy of training for occupational injury control. Occupational Medicine, 9, pp 147-158.

Kalsher M. J., Geller, E. S., Clarke, S. W., & Lehman, G. R. (1989). Safety belt promotion on a naval base: A comparison of incentives vs. disincentives. Journal of Safety Research, 20, pp 103-113.

Karan, B. S., & Kopelman, R. E. (1987). The effects of objective feedback on vehicular and industrial accidents: A field experiment using outcome feedback. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 8, pp 45-56.

Kazdin, A.E. (1973). Methodological and assessment considerations in evaluating reinforcement programs in applied settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, pp 517-531.

Kjellen, U., & Baneryd, K (1983). Changing local health and safety practices at work within the explosives industry. Ergonomics, 26, pp 863-877.

Komaki, J. L., Collins, R. L., & Penn, P. (1982). The role of performance antecedents and consequences in work motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67,  pp 334-340.

Komaki, J. L., Heinzmann, A. T., & Lawson, L. (1980). Effect of training and feedback: Component analysis of a behavioral safety program. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, pp 261-270.

Komaki J., Barwick, K., & Scott, L. (1978). A behavioral approach to occupational safety: Pinpointing and reinforcing safety performance in a food manufacturing plant. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, pp 434-445.

Krause, T.R., Seymour,K.J., Sloat, K.C.M. (1999). Long-term evaluation of a behavior-based method for improving safety performance:a meta-analysis of 73 interrupted time-series replications. Safety Science, 32, pp 1-18.

Laitinen, H., & Järvinen T. (1995) Accident risks and the effect of performance feedback with industrial CO2 lasers. Optics Laser Technology, 27(1), pp 25-30.

Laitinen, H., & Ruohomaki, I (1996) The effects of feedback and goal setting on safety performance at two construction sites. Safety Science, 24, pp 61-73.

Laitinen, H., Saari, J., & Kuusela, J. (1997) Initiating an innovative change process for improved working conditions and ergonomics with participation and performance feedback: A case study in an engineering workshop. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics,19, pp 299-305.

Larson, L. D., Schnelle, J. F., Kirchner, Jr., R., Carr, A., Domash, M., & Risley, T. R. (1980). Reduction of police vehicle accidents through mechanically aided supervision. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, pp 571-581.

Lingard H. & Rowlinson, S. (1998). Behaviour-based safety management in Hong Kong's construction industry: the results of a field study. Construction Management and Economics,16,(4), pp 481-488

Lopez.M.L. & Bayes, R. (1988) Prevencion de riesgos en el trabajo: Efectos de la retroalimentacion y la participacion. (The prevention of work risks: Effects of feedback and workers' participation). Avances-en-Psicologia-Clinica-Latinoamericana, 6, pp 53-65.

Lu, C.S. & Yang, C.S. (2010). Safety leadership and safety behavior in container terminal operations. Safety Science, 48(2), pp 123-134.

Ludwig, T. D., & Geller, E. S. (1991) Improving the driving practices of Pizza deliverers: Response generalization and moderating effects of driving history. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, pp 31-44.

Ludwig, T. D., & Geller, E. S (1997). Assigned versus participative goal setting and response generalization: Managing injury control among professional pizza deliverers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), pp 253-261.

Marsh, T.W., Davies, R., Phillips, R.A., Duff, A.R., Robertson, I.T., Weyman, A & Cooper, M.D. (1998). The Role of Management Commitment in Determining the Success of a Behavioural Safety Intervention. Journal of the Institution of Occupational Safety & Health. 2(2), pp 45-56.

Marsh, T.W., Duff, A.R., Phillips, R.A., Robertson, I.T., Cooper, M.D. & Weyman, A (1994). Practical problems encountered attempting to improve safety through behavioural interventions. Safety & Health on Construction Sites: International State of the Art Reports. #187, Chartered Institute of Building.

Marsh, T.W., Robertson, I.T., Duff, A.R., Phillips, R.A., Cooper, M.D. & Weyman, A. (1995). Improving Safety Behaviour Using Goal-Setting and Feedback. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, 16(1), pp 5-12.

Mattila, M. & Hyödynmaa, M. (1988). Promoting job safety in building: An experiment on the behavior analysis approach. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 9, pp 255-267.

Mattilla, M., Hyttinen, M &Rantanen, E., (1994) Effective supervisory behaviour and safety at the building site. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 13(2), pp 85-93.

Mattilla, M., Rantanen, E., & Hyttinen, M (1994). The quality of work environment, supervision and safety in building construction. Safety Science, 17, pp 257-268.

McAfee, R. B., & Winn, A. R. (1989). The use of incentives/feedback to enhance workplace safety. Journal of Safety Research, 20, pp 7-19.

McCann, K. B., & Sulzer.Azaroff, B. (1996). Cumulative trauma disorders: Behavioral injury prevention at work. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32(3), pp 277-291.

McKelvey, R. K., Engen, T., & Peck, M. B. (1973) Performance efficiency and injury avoidance as a function of positive and negative incentives. Journal of Safety Research, 5, pp 90-96.

Menkel, E., Carter, N., & Hellbom, M. (1993) The long.term effects of two group routines on accident prevention activities and accident statistics. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 12, pp 301-309.

Montero, R., & Molina, A. (1993) Resultados de la aplicación de una campaña informativa Sobre la seguridad. (Results of the application of an informational campaign on safety.) Salud y Trabajo, 97(3), pp 30-32.

Montero, R. (1993) Un procedimiento para el perfeccionanidento de la seguridad del trabajo. (A procedure leading toward the perfection of job safety.) Revista Brasileira de Sdude Ocupacional, 21, pp 51-56.

Montero, R. (1993) Reducción de accidentes de trabajo mediante el cambio de conducta hacia la seguridad. (Reduction of work accidents mediated by safety behavior change.) Mafre Seguridad , 52(4), pp 31-37.

Montero, R. (1996) La investigación de acción participativa una estrategia de intervención organizacional. (The investigation of a participative action: An organizational intervention strategy). Estudios Finpresariales, 91(2), pp 45-52.

Montero, R. (1995) Psicosociología preventiva aplicada a la accidentabilidad laboral. (Psychosocial prevention applied to work accidents.) Estudios Empresariales, 88, pp 64-68.

Montero, R. (1997) Caso Practico reforzar las conductas para mejorar la calidad. (Practical example: Reinforcing behavior to improve quality). Estudios Empresariales, 94(2), pp 52-60.

Mortimer, R. G., Goldstein, K., Armstrong, R. W., & Macrina, D. (1990). Effects of incentive and enforcement on the use of seat belts by drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 21, pp 25-37.

Naesaenan, M., & Saari, J. (1987). Effects of positive feedback on housekeeping and accidents at a shipyard. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 8, pp 237-250.

Nimmer, J.G., & Geller, E.S. (1988). Motivating safety belt use at a community hospital: An effective integration of incentive and commitment strategies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, pp 381-395.

Olson, R. & Austin, J. (2001). Behavior-Based Safety and Working Alone: The Effects of a Self-Monitoring Package on the Safe Performance of Bus Operators. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(3), pp 5 - 43.

Parand, A & Foster, P. (2008). Improving the Safety of Lone Workers in Quarrying Operations through Behavioural Safety Interventions. Final Report for Mineral Industry Research Organisation (MIRO) - MA6/2/002. Camborne School of Mines, University of Exeter - Cornwall Campus.

Peters, R. H. (1991). Strategies for encouraging self.protective employee behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 22, pp 53-70.

Ray, P. S., & Bishop, P. A. (1997). Efficacy of the components of a behavioral safety program. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 19, pp 19-29.

Ray, P. S., Purswell, J. L., & Bowen, D. J. (1993). Behavioral safety program. Creating a new corporate culture. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 12, pp 193-198.

Reber, R.A., Wallin, J.A., & Duhon, D.L. (1993) Preventing occupational injuries through performance management. Public Personnel Management, 22(2), pp 301-311.

Reber, R. A., & Wallin, J. A. (1983) Validation of a Behavioral Measure of Occupational Safety. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 5, pp 69 - 78

Reber, R. A., & Wallin, J. A. (1984). The effects of training, goal setting, and knowledge of results on safe behavior: A component analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 27, pp 544-560.

Reber, R. A., & Wallin, J. A. (1994) Utilizing performance management to improve offshore oilfield diving safety. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 2(1), pp 88-98.

Reber, R. A., Wallin, J. A., & Chhokar, J. (1984). Reducing industrial accidents: A behavioral experiment. Employee Relations, 23, pp 119-124.

Reber, R. A., Wallin, J. A., & Chhokar, J. (1990). Improving safety performance with goal setting and feedback. Human Performance, 3, pp 51-61.

Rhoton, W. W. (1980). A procedure to improve compliance with coal mine safety regulations. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 2(4), pp 243-249.

Robertson, IT, Duff, A.R., Marsh, TW, Phillips, R.A. Weyman, A. & Cooper, M.D. (1999). Improving safety on construction sites by changing personnel behaviour: Phase 2. HMSO: London.

Saarela, K. L. (1990). An intervention program utilizing small groups: A comparative study. Journal of Safety Research, 21, pp 149-156.

Saari, J., & Naesaenan, M. (1989) The effect of positive feedback on industrial housekeeping and accidents: A long term study at a shipyard. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 4, pp 201-211.

Saari, J. (1994) When does behavior modification prevent accidents? Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 15, pp 11-15.

Sasson, J.R. & Austin, J (2005). The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 24(4), pp 1 - 30.

Smith, M. J., Anger, W. K., & Uslan, S. S. (1978) Behavioral modification applied to occupational safety. Journal of Safety Research, 10, pp 87-88.

Streff, F. M., Kalsher, M. J., & Geller, E. S. (1993). Developing efficient workplace safety programs: Observations of response covariation. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 13, pp 3-15.

Sulzer.Azaroff, B. (1978) Behavioral ecology and accident prevention. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 2, pp 11-44.

Sulzer-Azaroff, B (1987). The modification of occupational safety behavior. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 9(3), pp 177-197.

Sulzer.Azaroff, B.(1992). Making a difference in occupational safety with behavior management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, pp 653-54.

Sulzer.Azaroff, B., & Fellner, D. (1984). Searching for performance targets in the behavior analysis of occupational safety: An assessment strategy. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 6, pp 53-65.

Sulzer.Azaroff, B., & de Santamaria, M. C. (1980). Industrial safety hazard reduction through performance feedback. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, pp 287-295.

Sulzer.Azaroff, B., Harris, T. C., & McCann, K. (1994) Beyond training: Organizational performance management techniques. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 9, pp 321-339.

Sulzer.Azaroff, B., Loafman, B., Merante, R. J., & Hlavacek, A. C. (1990). Improving occupational safety in a large industrial plant: A systematic replication. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 11, pp 99-120.

Tuncel S; Lotlikar H; Salem S & Daraiseh, N (2006).  Effectiveness of behaviour based safety interventions to reduce accidents and injuries in workplaces: critical appraisal and meta-analysis. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 7(3), pp 191 - 209.

Waters, R. M. & Duncan, M. (2001). Behavioral Safety Programs in the Department of Energy. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings. Safety, pp. 1524-1527(4).

Williams, J.H & Geller, E.S. (2000). Behavior-Based Intervention for Occupational Safety: Critical Impact of Social Comparison Feedback. Journal of Safety Research, 31(3), pp 135-142.

Wirth, O. & Sigurdsson, S.O (2008). When workplace safety depends on behavior change: Topics for behavioral safety research. Journal of Safety Research, 39(6) pp 589-598.

Zhiwei Zhu, Z, Wallin, J.A., & Reber, R.A. (2000). Safety Improvements: an application of behaviour modification techniques. Journal of Applied Management Studies, 9(1), pp 135 - 140

Zohar, D., & Fussfield, H. (1981) Modifying earplug wearing behavior by behavior modification techniques: An empirical evaluation. Journal of Safety Research, 3, pp 41-52.

Zohar, D., Cohen, A., & Azar, N. (1980) Promoting increased use of ear protection in noise through information feedback. Human Factors, 22, pp 69-79.

Zohar, D. (1980) Promoting use of personal protective equipment by behavior modification techniques. Journal of Safety Research, 12, pp 78-85.

Zohar, D (2002). Modifying supervisory practices to improve subunit safety: A leadership-based intervention model. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 87(1), pp 156-163.

Zohar, D. & Luria, G. (2003). The use of supervisory practices as leverage to improve safety behavior: A cross-level intervention model. Journal of Safety Research, 34(5), pp 567-577.

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